SELECT is used for reading records from a Logrange database. SELECT statement has the following syntax:

    SELECT [<format string>] 
        [FROM ({<tags>}|<tags expression)] 
        [RANGE (<timePoint>|[<timePoint>:<timePoint>])]
        [WHERE <fields expression>] 
        [POSITION (head|tail|<specific pos>)] 
        [OFFSET <number>]
        [LIMIT <number>]

SELECT statement allows to read records from one or multiple partitions. The records will appear in the result stream in the order, they were appended to the partition(s). If the result stream contains records from multiple partitions the meging procedure will be applied:

  1. repeat until at least one non-empty partition
  2. current record timestamp from a partition is compared with a current record of any other partition
  3. record from the partition with the lowest current record timestamp is selected and placed to result stream. Next record for the partition becomes current. Go to the Step#1

Records from the result stream could be filtered. Also, the SELECT statement allows to specify starting read position and the number of records expected to be in the result stream.

Formatting records

The <format string> is a template for formatting records in the result. The template should be placed in double quotes with variables placed in curly braces. The curly braces { and } could be escaped by {{ for { and {} for }.

For example, the template "Record content: {msg}\n" will put the prefix "Record content: " before each record's message. The following variables could be used in the template string:

ts - record timestamp
ts.format(<format>) - record timestamp formatted according the <format> (see GoLang time parsing conventions)
msg - record message (msg field value)
msg.json - record message escaped and placed in double quotes
vars - record tags and optional fields put together
vars:<name> - record field or tag value given by the name provided

Example: "{ts.format(2006-01-02)} {vars:source} {{{msg}{}"
Default value: "{msg}\n"

Selecting partitions

The FROM statement allows to define partitions where records will be read from. The FROM statement contains a tags condition is a logical expression which is executed for every partition. Partitions for which tags the condition has true result, will be selected. The condition could be written in one of the following 2 forms:

  1. Simple form
  2. Logical expression form

Simple form In this form the list of tags, that must be in a partition tags is provided. For example the expression {name="app1",ip="57.43.3.4"} means - all partition with both tags name="app1" AND ip="57.43.3.4". So partition tagged by {name="app1",pod="1234",ip="57.43.3.4"} matches the condition, but the partition with tags {name="app1",pod="1234"} does not.

Logical expression This form allows to specify an expression using boolean AND, OR and NOT conditions. For tags matching logical expressions and some glob comparisons are available. For example, the condition name like "app*" OR pod="1234" allows to select all partitions, which have tag name with value started from "app", OR a partition with tag pod="1234" value.

Tag logical operations The following operations are allowed to check a tag value: <, >, <=, >=, !=, =, LIKE, and CONTAINS.

LIKE uses Glob conventions to test a tag value. CONTAINS is used for testing whether the tag value contains provided text or not.

Example: name Like "application*" OR name = "app1"
Default value: `` - empty string, which means to select ALL partitions.

Specifying time-interval

The RANGE statement allows to define the time-range from which records will be selected. The RANGE statement is a special type of time filtering, which allows to utilize time index for records selection. For streams with monotonically increased timestamp ts field value this kind of requests could be very effective.

Range defines the time interval with 2 values, which identify the time interval. The interval's time-points, could be specified in a relative form or an absolute one.

Relative form is a negative number of minutes, hours, days etc. to the current time. It should be placed in qoutes. For example: "-10m" means ten minutes ago (from now), "-3.5h" means 3 and a half hours ago etc. The form allows the letters m for minutes, h for hours and d for days.

Also, the time point can be one of the words wihout any digits: "minute", "hour", "day" and "week" which mean beginning of last minute, hour, day or week correspondingly.

Absolute time point could be specified in the form "2019-05-03 15:43:55 -0700" which contains date, time and timezone, or it could be just time of the current date "07:15:23" etc.

The RANGE could be specified in one of 2 forms. First one is short, which allows to specify only start time point like RANGE "-1.5h". The second form allows to specify both time points like RANGE ["-1h":"-0.5h"] or only the end one like RANGE [:"-1.5h"]

Default value: `` - empty string, accepting all values of ts.

Filtering records

The WHERE statement allows to define an exression to filter records. The WHERE statement can contain mandatory record fields ts and msg or an optional record field, which should have fields: prefix. For example: ... WHERE msg CONTAINS 'ERROR' OR fields.source LIKE 'system*' ....

timestamp conditions The following operations allowed to be used with ts field value: <, >, <=, >=. The time value can be written in the form described in RANGE. For example ts > "-10m" means consider records with the timestamp greater than time 10 minutes ago or less.

msg conditions The following operations allowed to be used with msg field value: CONTAINS tests whether msg contains the text provided
PREFIX tests whether msg starts with the text provided
SUFFIX tests whether msg ends with the text provided
LIKE uses Glob conventions to test the msg value

other fields conditions The following operations allowed to be used with optional record fields values: CONTAINS tests whether the field contains the text provided
PREFIX tests whether the field starts with the text provided
SUFFIX tests whether the field ends with the text provided
LIKE uses Glob conventions to test the the field value
= the filed value is equal to the text provided
!= the filed value is not equal to the text provided
< the filed value is less than the text provided
> the filed value is greater than the text provided
>= the filed value is equal or greater than the text provided
<= the filed value is equal or less than the text provided

field transformation functions There are 2 functions available to transform text fields msg and fields: values: Upper() - returns all Unicode letters in upper case Lower() - returns all Unicode letters in lower case

Example:
WHERE msg contains "ERROR" or fields:id="1234"
WHERE Lower(msg) contains "error"

Default value: `` - empty string. It means no filter applied, so it accepting all records.

Specifying the start position

The POSITION part defines the starting position where records should be read from It could be head, tail or a string which could be received from previous requests.

Default value: head

Skipping records from the start position

The OFFSET statement allows to skip the <number> of records from the start position, berfore placing them into the result stream. The <number> could be negative, what means skip the absolute number of records towards to the head of stream before starting to read them.

Example: ... POSITION tail OFFSET -10 ... literally means the following - to set position to the tail of the stream; then, to skip 10 records shifting the start position towards to the head and to start read from there... In short - to read last 10 records from the stream.
Default value: 0 - no offset

Limiting result

The LIMIT allows to specify the number of records to be placed in the result stream. Result stream can contain less, if the total number of records is less than the number

Default value: 50 records

Examples

SELECT FROM name="app1" LIMIT 1000 - to read 1000 records from head, merging all partitions with tag name="app1"

SELECT FROM name="app1" POSITION tail OFFSET -10 - to read 10 last records, merging all partitions with tag name="app1"

SELECT FROM name="app1" WHERE upper(msg) contains "ERROR" LIMIT 1000 - to read 1000 records, that contain word "ERROR", starting from head, merging all partitions with tag name="app1"